What To Expect

Year 1                                

 Plant paddocks with perennial plants in rows spaced 12 ft apart. Plant annual crops like corn and sunflower to bridge the canopy gap while native trees and shrubs develop.

Year 2                                

 Replant perennials that may have died. Trim back elderberries that grew too close to hazelnuts.

Years 3-5                        

 As the perennial canopy develops, observe and manage it according to the 60-80% canopy coverage objective. Farmers may observe that the elderberry and hazelnuts attract bird nesting. Considering the ecosystem value of this phenomena, Documenting and observing it has turned into one of the most interesting outcomes. By this time in the paddock development, if a hawk or eagle comes roaming around looking for an easy bite, the birds nesting in the hazelnuts have been observed organizing and effectively chasing away these predators as soon as they invade the air space.

Year 6                         

 Hazelnuts start producing at an economically viable volume to harvest. Total hazelnut-related canopy will reach maturity. The slow-growing tall canopy will also begin to influence the total canopy cover.

Year 8                         

 Year 8 represents the final transition to a permanent canopy structure formed by hazelnuts, elderberries, and forest species. While the final canopy development is still about a decade from being completed, the majority of the production unit is set for the long run with minimal intervention going forward, except for harvesting the fruits of the system.

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